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Figure 9 shows a typical potentiometric biosensor having working electrode composed of CNT, polyvinylpyrilidon, NP, and potassium chloride KCl with asbestos membrane. Figure 9 Potentiometric biosensor. Due to simultaneous detection of several analytes, semiconductor-based LAPS was used because of its small size and multichannel arrangement. Ahuja et al 71 developed a potentiometric urea biosensor based on bovine serum albumin embedded on the surface of modified polypyrrole film. The electrode shows a linear response of 6. Conductometric biosensor is generally based on the conductance measurement, that is, whenever a change in the ionic concentration of an analyte occurs, there is a subsequent change in the electrical conductivity of the solution or changes in the flow of current.

Nanomaterials, such as magnetic NPs, carbon nanostructures, and quantum dots, have important components to enhance performance in terms of lower detection limit, and higher sensitivity and faster electron transfer. The use of metal NPs and graphene is common practice to increase surface area and conductivity of the electrochemical biosensor. The addition of metal NPs in the working electrode increases sensitivity and current signal response time of the electrochemical biosensor.

The use of electrochemical biosensors in food analysis

Huang et al 77 have reported the application of CNTs for crystallization of proteins and building of bioreactors and biosensors. When titanium dioxide NPs combined with CNTs significantly increase disinfectant properties against Bacillus cereus spores, 78 Ali et al 79 have reported a gold NPs sensor for the detection of E. For this, the food industry should perform different food analysis methods and different stages of quality checks to ensure the quality and safety of foods. Other concerns of the food industry include increasing the product yield, optimizing energy input, monitoring the food processing, and to raise the food processing automation level.

Proper packing of the food is also essential in order to avoid environmental contamination during transport and storage of the food. Determination of chemical and biological contaminants in food is of importance for ensuring healthy nutrition for people. Salmonella , L. Hence, it is very important to detect these microbial contaminants using rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive methods of analysis. This goal of the food industry can be achieved by the use of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants in foods.

Electrochemical biosensors provide rapid, specific, and inexpensive food sample analysis.

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Table 1 summarizes the response time, LOD, sensitivity, and response time reported by different researchers for the detection of analyte present in food samples. An amperometric detection of E. Another important application of the electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of S.

Girousi et al 84 again fabricated a mitochondria-based amperometric biosensor for the determination of l -succinic acid in the range of 0. Table 1 Some examples of electrochemical biosensors used in food analysis Notes: Real samples of Tryptamine used were tomato juice and banana pulp. Real samples of glucose used were grape, honey and watermelon; hyphens - represent data not available. Abbreviation: CFU, colony forming unit. Much has been achieved in the field of electrochemical biosensors for food safety, however more needs to be done in the near future.

Future work should be focused on the development of a novel biosensor in which power consumption must be reduced and more efficient power sources batteries, capacitors, and so on must be developed and fixed into biological detection systems to reduce the size and weight of the system and to increase system utility.

A handheld and easily portable and smart electrochemical biosensor is needed so that detection of chemical and biological toxins can be made in the field of actual production so that proper monitoring of the food samples can be done. Future research should focus on the development of biosensors that may help fight against the disease-causing food-borne pathogens.

Nanocomposites are receiving increasing interest for sensor construction in recent years. Handling of biosensors should be made simple so that even someone without specialized knowledge can use it without the help of qualified persons. Multifunctional and versatile biosensing systems are required for the analysis of multiple analytes using a single device. A more sensitive biosensor that is capable of detecting the nanomolar ranges in the field of food industry, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnosis will certainly prove fruitful. Biosensor-based devices have become an important part of the equipment used in laboratories to detect biological response.

In spite of having developed a number of biosensors for detecting food-borne pathogens, it is still a challenge to create biosensors for the reliable and effective determination of microorganisms in real food samples. Conventional methods enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction for detecting food-borne pathogens are good but need well-trained persons, involve tedious procedures, and take a long time to show results.

Ideal biosensors will have great potential to achieve better results and detect multiple pathogens in a very short time. Electrochemical biosensors have great potential in the future following further improvements. Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosens Bioelectron. Viswanathan S, Radecki J.

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Nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors for food analysis. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. Banica GF. Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications. Biosensor in food processing. J Food Sci Technol. Lopez BP, Merkoci A. Nanomaterials based biosensors for food analysis applications. Trends Food Sci Tech. Clark CL, Lyon C.

Sensor devices and biosensors in food analysis

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Wang J. Glucose biosensors: 40 years of advances and challenges. Guilbault G, Lubrano G. An enzyme electrode for the amperometric determination of glucose.

Anal Chim Acta. Electrochemical glucose biosensors. Chem Rev. Wiley J and Sons. Chemical mechanism in enzyme catalysis. Putzbach W, Ronkainen NJ. Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensor — a review. Sensors Basel. Degani Y, Heller A. Electrical wiring of redox enzymes. Acc Chem Res.

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Improved design for the glucose biosensor. Food Tech Biotech. Glucose biosensors: an overview of use in clinical practice. A critical review of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes and graphene.

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Amperometric enzyme electrodes part-II Conducting salts as electrode material for the oxidation of glucose oxidase. J Electroanal Chem. Anal Chem. Design of a stable charge transfer complex electrode for a third-generation amperometric glucose sensor. New nanostructured TiO2 for direct electrochemistry and glucose sensor applications.