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Brand new Book. This book is about "diamond", a logic of paradox. In diamond, a statement can be true yet false; an "imaginary" state, midway between being and non-being. This book has three sections: Paradox Logic, which covers the classic paradoxes of mathematical logic, shows how they can be resolved in this new system; The Second Paradox, which relates diamond to Boolean logic and the Spencer-Brown "modulator"; and Metamathematical Dilemma, which relates diamond to Goedelian metamathematics and dilemma games.

Seller Inventory AAJ Seller Inventory Condition: new. Hellerstein, This book is about 'diamond', a logic of paradox. In diamond, a statement can be true yet false; an 'imaginary' state, midway between being and non-being. Diamond's imaginary values solve many logical paradoxes unsolvable in two-valued boolean logic. This book has three sections: Paradox Logic, which covers the classic paradoxes of mathematical logic, shows how they can be resolved in this new system; The Second Paradox, which relates diamond to Boolean logic and the Spencer-Brown modulator"; and Metamathematical Dilemma, which relates diamond to Godelian meta-mathematics and dilemma games.

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7 Logical Paradoxes To Blow Your Mind

When submerging yourself into this question you are confronted by oblique logic. It becomes evident that potentially our attribution of monetary value may be independent of the significance of the commodity. Clearly, a bottle of cognac can be sold at a higher retail price than a bag of spinach. However, the bag of spinach contains more nutrients than the bottle of cognac. The deeper you become entrenched in this logical puzzle, the more perplexing it becomes.

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When assessing this paradox it might lead one to believe that we as a society are misprioritizing our goods. The partner does appear to be those luxury goods and other nonessentials at times cost more than essentials. However, we should engage in examing this inquiry because the Diamond-Water Paradox is still a contested problem to this day. It comes in the form of many manifestations. If we do not understand how market prices are assessed we will still continue to suffer much confusion.

In our modern world, we are still plagued by the same issue that Smith grappled with nearly three hundred years ago. Commonly you will hear the sanctimoniously echoing sentiment of the fallacy of how a reality television star makes more money than first responders. Another example is the significant and rapidly deepening gulf between the compensation between teachers and professional athletes [7]. Both examples are modern manifestations of the Diamond-Water Paradox.

The sense of outrage and cognitive dissonance implied in both examples illustrates that even in modern times we are still struggling with this logical issue. Due to the lack of comprehension and critical analysis of the assessment of pricing such perceived injustices seem astonishingly jarring. Expression of such grievances provides little insight into this phenomenon nor does it provide any solutions.

Considering how easily applicable this paradox is to modern affairs it is a testament to its enduring nature. Smith was hardly contemplating the equity of compensation.

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Back in the s highly consolidated and government bulwarked unions did not exist in the same capacity they do now. The real powerful government supported unions did not come to fruition until the s and s in the United States [8]. Smith was examining this phenomenon of pricing in a slightly less complex world.

However, he at least was postulating about the mechanisms of pricing. He purposed that a commodity was worth the amount of labor exerted to create or obtain the goods or service[9]. Smith was also prudent enough to point out some of the fallacies inherent in his own view of value assessment. As Smith asserts that when comparing goods produced by two different types of labor it is difficult to determine if they are equal [10].

Due to the number of varying contingencies and qualitative differences. Beyond his interpretation of the production value of goods and services he also directly addresses the paradox in his Magnus Opus The Wealth of Nations. Smith makes the distinction that there are two types of value appraisals for goods and services.


His explanation indicating water having a significant amount of utility due to it being essential for survival. Unfortunately, Smith does not have a satisfactory rationale for why this discrepancy exists. Even in light of it boarding on the line of absurdity if taken from a linear interpretation. It would be innate to think that they are to some extent interconnected or even correlated.

It is possible that even the two varieties of value appraisals are independent of one another. Despite how far off course we can veer attempting to solve the disconnect, there are theorists that have already composed solutions. The thinkers and intellectual theorists of the Austrian School of Economics approach the Diamond-Water Paradox with heterodoxy.

The hegemony of scientific thought has caused the inculcation of empiricism to most educated individuals.

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Biasing our perspectives to the extent of overlooking a priori information. The empirical method is inapplicable to economics it is would be erroneous to apply to the social sciences [14]. Much of economic behavior cannot be explained through material validation of experiments but through formal logic [15].

The Subjective Theory of Value does not derive the value of goods based or other costs of production. Rather the monetary value is ascribed by the perceived importance by the consumer [16]. However, the perceived value of a commodity or service does not remain constant. The more of a good the consumer has the greater the aptitude the good has already satisfied the consumers most pertinent needs.

Each subsequent acquisition of the specific good is then utilized for less important uses. In a sense, the good becomes less valuable the more the consumers need for it has become satiated. This principle is known as the Law of Marginal Utility. Due to the observed and enduring fact that the scarcity does influence the value of a good.

From the vantage point of the Austrian School, the determination of the change in value is made by the consumer. Ludwig Von Mises one of the defining and premier theorists within the Austrian tradition sheds much light upon the topic of value in his masterpiece Human Action. A quintessential book and a milestone to the advancement of Austrian Economic thought. Mises surmises that the value of goods is derived through action.

Diamond: A Paradox Logic - Nathaniel S. Hellerstein - Google книги

This implicit fact is demonstrated through the act of exchange. If we are willing to trade X amount of one commodity for another it can be assumed that we value the commodity we obtained more than the one that was exchanged. An order of value created without the aid of any formal calculations [19]. This notion gives credence to the possibility that goods are valued on a subjective level and this is punctuated economic behavior.

Above all Mises along with all following Austrian theorists perceives value as being a subjective attribution. However, it should be noted that the subjective theory of value was not conceived by Mises as it was Carl Menger the founder of the Austrian school that formulated this premise. What I would state is that Mises elaborated on the concept and further refined it.