PDF The Art of Teaching Spanish: Second Language Acquisition from Research to Praxis

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Graphic organizers show relationships between concepts and can help students understand these relationships. An example of a graphic organizer is a flowchart that shows the beginning, middle, and end of a story. Another example is a tree map showing different animal kingdoms and species. Graphic organizers are helpful for ELLs, because it adds a visual component that allows them to see direct relationships among concepts they are learning.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test. Informal assessments are usually completed more often than formal assessments and generally do not have a numerical grade. This is used as a rating scale to assess how a student is doing with regards to oral language, or speaking. Formal assessments are used as a standardized way to assess what students know.

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They will often have a percentage or numerical score, but not always. Formal assessments include End of Course exams EOCs that are taken as a statewide assessment, unit tests given to students at the of a unit or end of a grading period, final projects that students have been working on throughout a unit, and portfolios that show a variety of work on a certain topic.

Formative assessments are assessments that are given throughout a unit or throughout the learning process to check how students are doing. The results of formative assessments are used to plan future assignments and to guide instruction. Summative assessments, on the other hand, are used at the end of a unit to assess what students learned. Summative assessments include end of unit or end of course exams, final projects, or research papers. In order to fit the needs of all learners, ELLs included, classroom assessments often need to be adapted in various ways. Some ways to adapt assessments include:.

Cultural bias in testing occurs when a test includes questions related to culture-specific scenarios or refers indirectly to a cultural-specific idea or item.

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Standardized tests are often created by people who are part of the predominant culture, and as a result, the test often contains a level of cultural bias. Cultural bias in testing is not always very obvious. For example, a test might include a reading passage that refers to a baseball game followed by questions that require the student to make inferences about the game.


If a student has never seen a baseball game or even heard of baseball, they are already at an unfair disadvantage. Teachers can try to avoid cultural bias by carefully selecting test questions that do not refer to culture-specific things, by giving students necessary background knowledge ahead of time, and if possible, by having a person of another culture look over an assessment for any cultural bias. Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests are both ways to assess students, but the difference lies in the scores and how these scores are interpreted.

A student may score in the 90th percentile at the beginning of the year on a norm-referenced test, but score in the 30th percentile at the end of the year if they did not make as much progress throughout the year as other students. Scores from norm-referenced tests are usually reported as a percentile. The scores and cut-off values for each performance level do not change based on how other students do on the assessment.

Criterion-referenced tests are typically more appropriate for ELL students, because they are able to demonstrate what they know based on the test criteria, rather than being compared to their English speaking peers. Nativists are people who believe that only their culture or the majority culture should be protected, not the culture of immigrants. An ethnocentric mentality refers to the belief that your culture is the superior culture. It means that you use the standards of your culture to judge other cultures.

This can lead to a negative view of other cultures, as well as stereotypes of people from that culture. Culture shock occurs when a person moves to a new area and is overwhelmed by the new culture around them. Students experiencing culture shock may appear nervous, frustrated, distracted, homesick, or anxious. Culture shock can hinder language acquisition, because students experiencing culture shock are not in the best mindset for learning new information.

Once a student adjusts to the culture and culture shock wears off, they will be more prepared to learn a new language. An example of assimilation is an Asian-American family gradually stopping their Asian customs as they take on American traditions and customs. An example of this is a Mexican-American family celebrating American holidays such as Thanksgiving, but still celebrating Mexican holidays such as Dia de los Muertos.

In the United States and in many western European countries, eye contact is considered polite. It shows respect, interest, and engagement in the conversation.

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In other cultures, however, eye contact can convey a different meaning. For example, in many Asian cultures, avoiding eye contact is considered a sign of respect. In other cultures, a child making eye contact with an adult can be considered an act of defiance. It is important that educators understand that the meaning of eye contact varies across cultures. A student who is not maintaining eye contact may not be showing disrespect or disinterest, but is instead not used to making extended eye contact with their teachers.

Plyler v. Doe was a Supreme Court case in that resulted from a public school district in Texas denying enrollment to students who were not yet legal citizens of the United States. The school district also attempted to require students who were not citizens to pay tuition to attend a public school. The Plyler v. Doe Supreme Court case decided that states and school districts cannot deny students a free public education based on their immigration status.

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This case continues to ensure that children have access to free public education, regardless of their immigration status. NABE supports English Language Learners by providing professional development for bilingual educators, by ensuring English Language Learners maintain their rights, and by making sure programs that serve these students receive enough funding.

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It is a national nonprofit formed in by Native American educators. NIEA strives to improve education for Native American students and to promote the development of Native American languages and cultures. NIEA provides resources to educators and also encourages changes in policies that will help Native American students Source: www. It is a test that is taken by those who speak English as a second language and are planning to apply to an English-speaking university.

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The test consists of four sections: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. TOEFL is considered the most widely accepted English-language test and is accepted by colleges in more than countries. Pass rate: This test has an average score of , with an average range of — Study time: In order to feel prepared for the test, plan to spend several weeks preparing.

You will have an opportunity to listen to a recording multiple times, but keep in mind that this will take up time, and the test has a 2 hour time limit. Some of the questions will ask you to choose more than one answer choice.

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Keep an eye on the time and make sure you are able to complete the test in the two hour time frame. Foundations of Linguistics. Derivational versus Inflectional Morphemes A derivational morpheme is a prefix or suffix that when added to a word, creates a new form of that word or a new word. Some examples of English and Spanish cognates include: artist English and artista Spanish color English and color Spanish hour English and hora Spanish minute English and minuto Spanish piano English and piano Spanish Pragmatics Pragmatics refers to the ways in which people use language to produce and comprehend meaning.

Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the study of the way language and language use is affected by cultural norms and cultural contexts. Each of these factors is explained below: A dialect is a form or variety of a language that is unique to a certain regional area. An example of a sociolect is slang used by teens or terminology used in a certain profession.

Speech community norms: A speech community is a group of people who share a similar language, but also share the same speech characteristics and linguistic norms.

Speech communities are often thought of as being a smaller area, such as a city or small town, rather than an entire region such as the Southwest. Examples of minimal pairs include: pass and path sink and think vent and tent light and right fairy and very Minimal pairs can be difficult for someone who is learning a new language, because of the fact that only one sound is different.